RESEARCH & STUDIES
The information posted here is not meant to be taken as medical advice.
Consult your personal doctor before applying any of the knowledge you gain here. Every case is very individual.
2023 - Burning Mouth Disorder and Parkinson's Disease: A Scoping Review of the Literature
Guru O, Ramesh Balasubramaniam, Gary D. Klasser
To provide a scoping review of the literature by assessing all articles written in English that investigated the relationship between BMD and PD.
2023 - Burning Mouth Syndrome: An Overview and Future Perspectives
Daniela Adamo and Gianrico Spagnuolo
Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a complex chronic neuropathic orofacial pain disorder characterized by a generalized or localized intraoral burning, dysesthetic sensation or pain of the oral mucosa, recurring daily for more than 2 h per day for more than 3 months, without any evidence of specific mucosal lesions and/or laboratory findings...
2023 - Lisinopril Induced Burning Mouth Syndrome - Annals of Internal Medicine
Nithya Sridhar, MD, and Zehra Tosur, MD
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as an uncomfortable burning sensation in the mouth and/or tongue in the absence of any oral mucosa lesions, sores, or other abnormalities. We describe a case in which a patient had a burning sensation in her mouth for several years with no identifiable cause. Two weeks after her primary care physician switched her lisinopril to another antihypertensive medication, she noted significant improvement in her symptoms and improved quality of life. It is imperative for physicians to recognize angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, specifically lisinopril, as a possible cause of burning mouth syndrome in symptomatic patients.
2022 - Methylene Blue for Intractable Oral Pain - BMC Medicine
Carlos J. Roldan, Billy Huh, Juhee Song, Yago Nieto, Joyce Osei, Thomas Chai, Kent Nouri, Lakshmi Koyyalagunta & Eduardo Bruera Carlos J. Roldan, Billy Huh, Juhee Song, Yago Nieto, Joyce Osei, Thomas Chai, Kent Nouri, Lakshmi Koyyalagunta & Eduardo Bruera
Methylene blue for intractable pain from oral mucositis related to cancer treatment: a randomized phase 2 clinical trial. Oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving cancer therapy is thus far not well managed with standard approaches. We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of methylene blue (MB) oral rinse for OM pain in patients receiving cancer therapy.
2022 - Could Methylene Blue Be Used to Manage Burning Mouth Syndrome - JOMOS
Burning mouth syndrome is a disabling condition of complex pathophysiology characterized by spontaneous pain felt in the oral mucosa in the absence of evident mucosal lesions which lacks efficient treatments to this day. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of methylene blue in the management of burning mouth syndrome.
2022 - Burning Mouth Syndrome - National Library of Medicine
Gregory P. Bookout; Megan Ladd; Radley E. Short.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by burning pain in a normal-appearing oral mucosa lasting at least four to six months. The condition is idiopathic, and the underlying pathophysiology is not well understood. This activity reviews the presentation of burning mouth syndrome and highlights the role of an interprofessional approach in its management.
2022 - Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS)—Treatment with Verbal and Written Information, B Vitamins, Probiotics, and Low-Level Laser Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Božana Lončar-Brzak, Ivana Škrinjar. Vlaho Brailo, Danica Vidović-Juras, Lada Šumilin, Ana Andabak-Rogulj
Oral cavity probiotics and LLLT were the most effective for improving the quality of life in patients with BMS when compared to other treatment groups. Further investigation on a larger group of patients, including a placebo group, is required.
2021 - Efficacy of Rikkosan for primary burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective study
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition characterized by pain in the oral cavity. Kampo medicine is a traditional Japanese medical system that has its roots partly in ancient Chinese medicine. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rikkosan—a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo)—in the treatment of primary BMS.
2021 - Consensus agreement to rename burning mouth syndrome and improve International Classification of Diseases-11 disease criteria: an international Delphi study
Milda Chmieliauskaite, Elisabeth A. Stelson. Joel B. Epstein. Gary D. Klasser, Arwa Farag, Barbara Carey, Rui Albuquerque, Lina Mejia, Anura Ariyawardana, Cibele Nasri-Heir, Andrea Sardella, Charles Carlson, Craig S. Miller
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) proposes revisions in the nomenclature, disease definition, and diagnostic criteria for
“burning mouth syndrome” (BMS). This process could benefit from additional systematically collected expert input. Thus, the purpose of this study was to use the Delphi method to (1) determine whether revision in nomenclature and alternative names for “BMS” are warranted and (2) identify areas of consensus among experts for changes to the disease description and proposed diagnostic criteria of “BMS,” as described in the ICD-11 (World Health Organization). From 31 international invited experts, 23 who expressed interest were sent the survey. The study used 4 iterative surveys, each with a response rate of $82%. Consensus was predefined as 70% of participants in agreement. Data were summarized using both descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic analysis. Consensus indicated that BMS should not be classified as a syndrome and recommended instead renaming to “burning mouth disorder.” Consensus included deletion of 2 diagnostic criteria: (1) emotional distress or functional disability and (2) the number of hours symptoms occur per day. Additional items that reached consensus clarified the disease definition and proposed more separate diagnostic criteria, including a list of local and systemic factors to evaluate as potential secondary causes of oral burning. Experts in this study recommended and came to a consensus on select revisions to the proposed ICD-11 BMS nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, and disease definition. The revisions recommended have the potential to improve the clarity, consistency, and accuracy of diagnosis for this disorder.
2020 - Burning mouth syndrome: An update
Huann Lan Tan and Tara Renton
Cephalagia Reports Review Article
2020 - Evaluating the Suitability and Potential Efficiency of Cannabis sativa Oil for Patients with Primary Burning Mouth Syndrome:
Alessio Gambino, PhD, Marco Cabras, DDS, Evangelos Panagiotakos, MD, Federico Calvo, DDS, Alessandra Macciotta, PhD, Adriana Cafaro, MD, Marco Suria, DDS, Giorgia El Haddad, DDS, Roberto Broccoletti, DDS, Paolo Giacomo Arduino, PhD
A Prospective, Open-Label, Single-Arm Pilot Study
2020 - Burning Mouth Syndrome Associated with Increased Risk of Depression, Anxiety
Jong-Yeup Kim, MD, Ph.D., Hallym University College of Medicine, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.
A Study with comments by editorialists Federica Galli, Ph.D., and Gabriella Pravettoni, Ph.D., both from the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, Italy. Article in Physician's Weekly by Pam Harrison, Contributing Writer, BreakingMED™.
2020 - Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Diagnostic Challenge
Jacob E Freilich, Michal Kuten-Shorrer, Nathaniel S Treister, Sook-Bin Woo, Alessandro Villa
From the National Library of Medicine.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the diagnostic process that patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) undergo and to identify the potential pitfalls encountered in the workup and management of BMS.
2019 - Are You Sure It's Burning Mouth Syndrome?
Not all burning mouths are the result of a medical condition known as 'burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and physicians and researchers need better standards for an appropriate diagnosis, according to new research from Case Western Reserve University.
2019 - World Workshop on Oral Medicine VII
Burning mouth syndrome: A systematic review of disease definitions and diagnostic criteria utilized in randomized clinical trials
A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database/Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar that included RCTs on BMS published between 1994 and 2017.
Authors: Anura Ariyawardana | Milda Chmieliauskaite | Arwa M. Farag | Rui Albuquerque | Heli Forssell | Cibele Nasri-Heir | Gary D. Klasser | Andrea Sardella | Michele D. Mignogna | Mark Ingram | Charles R. Carlson | Craig S. Miller
2019 - Proteomic Profiling of Saliva for BMS
Proteomic profiling of whole-saliva reveals a correlation between Burning Mouth Syndrome and the neurotrophin signaling pathway.
Guy Krief; Yaron Haviv; Omer Deutsch; Aaron Palmon; & Doron J. Aframian
2019 - Women's Pain is Different from Men's - Should Their Drugs Be Too?
An article and study asking should women's drugs be different from men's.
The study referred to in the article is linked below.
2018 - Targeting Sodium Channels for Pain Relief
The race to develop analgesic drugs that inhibit sodium channel NaV1.7 is revealing a complex sensory role for the protein.
By Catherine Offord for The Scientist
2018 - New Findings on Characteristics of Burning Mouth Syndrome
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc.
Information courtesy of News-Medical.net
Review dated September 21, 2018
2017-2018 - Small Fibers, Big Pain: New Research on Fibromyalgia and Small Fiber Neuropathy
Video of Epidemics Science Lectures Series
As part of the 2017-2018 Epidemics Science Lecture Series at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Anne Louise Oaklander presents her lecture "Small Fibers, Big Pain: New Research on Fibromyalgia and Small Fiber Neuropathy," in which she discusses her new findings about unexplained chronic pain-such as that associated with fibromyalgia and Gulf War syndrome-and explains how damage to small nerve endings can lead to chronic fatigue, nausea, and even brain fog.
2017 - Is Burning Mouth Syndrome a Neuropathic Pain Condition?
Jääskeläinen, Satu, K.
Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as an “intraoral burning or dysaesthetic sensation, recurring daily… more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions” (IHS 2013). In addition to pain, taste alterations are frequent (dysgeusia, xerostomia). Although lacking clinical signs of neuropathy, more accurate diagnostic methods have shown neuropathic involvement at various levels of the neuraxis in BMS: peripheral small fiber damage (thermal quantitative sensory testing, electrogustatometry, epithelial nerve fiber density), trigeminal system lesions in the periphery or the brainstem (brainstem reflex recordings, trigeminal neurography, evoked potentials), or signs of decreased inhibition within the central nervous system (deficient brainstem reflex habituation, positive signs in quantitative sensory testing, neurotransmitter–positron emission tomography findings indicative of deficient striatal dopamine function)
2017 - Small Fiber Neuropathy - healthrising.org
By Cort Johnson
Dr. Anne Oaklander didn’t just discover the small nerve fiber problems in fibromyalgia, she’s literally trying to build the small nerve fiber field from the bottom up. We can thank the NIH for that: it awarded her with a big ROI grant a couple of years ago which, among other things, tasked her with identifying the best way to diagnose small nerve fiber neuropathy or as she more accurately calls it, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN).
2017 - Profiling intraoral neuropathic disturbances following lingual nerve injury and in burning mouth syndrome
Amely Hartmann, corresponding author Robin Seeberger, Malte Bittner, Roman Rolke, Claudia Welte-Jzyk, and Monika Daubländer
The aim of the study was to analyze intraoral neurophysiological changes in patients with unilateral lingual nerve lesions as well as patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) by applying a standardized Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) protocol.
2017 - Is it Sjögren’s Syndrome or Burning Mouth Syndrome? Distinct pathoses with similar oral symptoms
Hawra Aljanobi, B.D.S., Amarpreet Sabharwal, B.D.S., MS., Bralavan Krishnakumar, B.S., and Jill M. Kramer, D.D.S., Ph. D.a,c
April 2017 - Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS) and Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) typically present in post-menopausal women. Although these conditions have significantly different etiopathogeneses, patients with SS or BMS often present with analogous oral complaints. The similarities between the two conditions have led to considerable confusion on the part of medical and dental practitioners, and those with BMS or SS often wait years to receive a diagnosis. Therefore, it is imperative for clinicians to understand the characteristic subjective and objective features of each disease and how these can be used to distinguish them. This review will discuss the proposed etiology, clinical manifestations, histopathology, diagnostic criteria, and patient management of SS and BMS. We also identify key differences between the two pathoses that aid in establishing the correct diagnosis. Recognition of the defining features of each condition will lead to reduced time to diagnosis and improved patient management for these poorly understood conditions.
2017 - Cephalalgia - Burning Mouth Syndrome Abstract
Satu K Ja¨a¨skela¨inen and Alain Woda
Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic neuropathic intraoral pain condition.
. Primary BMS is most frequent in postmenopausal women, with a general population prevalence around 1%.
. Treatment of primary BMS is diﬃcult; best evidence exists for eﬃcacy of topical and systemic clonazepam.
. With advanced diagnostic methods, primary BMS can be classiﬁed into a purely peripheral or central type
or a combination of both types.
. These types seem to diﬀer regarding pathophysiological mechanisms, eﬃcacy of available treatments, and
2017 - Burning Mouth Syndrome: Aetiopathogenesis and Principles of Management
Review Article - L. Feller, J. Fourie, M. Bouckaert, R. A. G. Khammissa, R. Ballyram, and J. Lemmer
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic debilitating oral condition characterized by a burning sensation of the oral mucosa in an otherwise apparently normal person. Its etiology and pathogenesis are obscure, but both psychogenic factors and peripheral and central neuropathies appear to be implicated. There is no cure for BMS, and treatment with either local or systemic medications focuses on the relief of symptoms and on improving quality of life. In recalcitrant cases, psychological/psychiatric intervention may be helpful. In order to improve treatment outcomes, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this syndrome might provide a basis for the development of more effective management strategies. In this short review, we discuss current knowledge of the diagnosis, aetiopathogenesis, and management of BMS.
2017 - Analysis of MUC7 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS)
A Poster Presentation at 2017 IADR/AADR/CDR General Session - Authors: Shikha Acharya (Presenter) Odontology; Niclas Karlsson, Biomedicine Anette Carlen, University of Goteborg; Mats Jontell, Odontology
Analysis of MUC7 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) And The Controls Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)Analysis of MUC7 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) And The Controls Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)
2017 - Study Links Biomarkers in Saliva to BMS Diagnosis
Potential protein biomarkers for burning mouth syndrome discovered by quantitative proteomics
Research Article by Eoon Hye Ji, Cynthia Diep, Tong Liu, Hong Li, Robert Merrill, Diana Messadi, and Shen Hu
2016 - Burning Mouth Syndrome Basics
Gary D. Klasser DMD,Cert.Orofacial Pain Associate Professor Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Dentistry, Department of Diagnostic Sciences
A manuscript that Dr. Klasser wrote specifically for the BMS support group website.
It is a compilation of materials that he has already published or will be published in several chapters where he has been asked to be a contributor.
2016 - Interventions for Burning Mouth Syndrome
Published by the Cochrane Library
McMillan R, Forssell H, Buchanan J, Glenny A, Weldon JC, Zakrzewska JM
A review of studies dealing with interventions and treatment for Burning Mouth Syndrome.
2016 - The Role of Brain Imaging in Chronic Pain Research
A Podcast With David Seminowicz - Burning Mouth Syndrome Comments start at 14.50 minutes.
David Seminowicz is an associate professor in the department of neural and pain sciences at the University of Maryland School of Dentistry in Baltimore, US, where he runs a lab that studies chronic pain. In particular, his lab is interested in discovering the brain mechanisms of pain. His group performs brain imaging research in humans and in animals with the overall goal of identifying brain regions and circuits that change with chronic pain. He’s also interested in determining how interventions restore normal brain function. In this RELIEF podcast, David discusses what happens in the brain during chronic pain; the studies he is performing to better understand chronic pain conditions like low back pain, migraine, and burning mouth syndrome; and how brain imaging findings may help lead to new treatments.
For a written transcript of the podcast, please click here. For a glossary of terms used in the podcast, please see below. (Note: For slower connections, the video may take longer to load. If you experience difficulty, the video is also available through YouTube here).
2016 - Efficacy of Daily Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS): A Randomized Controlled Single-blind Study
Umezaki Y, Badran BW, DeVries WH, Moss J, Gonzales T, George MS.
The aim of this randomized, controlled, single-blind study was to assess the efficacy of prefrontal rTMS for BMS.
2016 Survey - BMS Support Group Poll
Dennis Sharpe, Researcher
This report is on a survey study that was done within a Facebook support group that has 1400 plus members. During the two months the survey was posted 436 members were active and 347 members filled out the survey.
Members of the group were asked not to fill out the survey if they were not diagnosed with Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS).
2015 - Burning mouth syndrome: clinical description, pathophysiological approach, and a new therapeutic option
A. Cárcamo Fonfría , L. Gómez-Vicente , M.I. Pedraza , M.L. Cuadrado-Pérez , A.L. Guerrero Peral , J. Porta-Etessam
A small study was done in Spain in 2015 and was made available online 2017...
2013 - Burning Mouth Syndrome
Practical Pain Management
The large array of potential pathologies for this condition requires investigative skill, tenacity, patience, and empathy to differentially diagnose and treat.
By Keith A. Yount, DDS, MAGD, FAGD
2011 Diagnostic Dilemma: The Enigma of an Oral Burning Sensation
Gary D. Klasser, DMD, Cert Orofacial Pain; Joel B. Epstein, DMD, MSD, FRCD(C), FDS RCSE; Dana Villines, MA
ABSTRACT: Burning mouth syndrome is an enigmatic condition that can be difficult to recognize and diagnose. Dental practitioners must be able to distinguish between primary (essential or idiopathic) and secondary burning mouth syndrome. The primary form is characterized by a burning sensation in the oral mucosa and perioral areas, typically with bilateral, symmetric distribution and an absence of relevant clinical and laboratory findings. In the secondary form, the burning sensation is due to clinical abnormalities or a systemic or psychological condition. To date, primary burning mouth syndrome has been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. A case description of a woman with oral burning sensations and the results of a retrospective case analysis are presented to aid practitioners in the understanding, recognition, and diagnosis of primary burning mouth syndrome.
2010 - Is Acupuncture a Possibility? - BMS Protocol from Italy
G. A. Scardina, A. Ruggieri, F. Provenzano and P. Messina
2003 - Lingual Nerve Injury
Steven B. Graff-Radford, DDS; Randolph W. Evans, MD
Lingual nerve injury is a common complication following dental and medical procedures. The clinical presentation of lingual nerve injury, its epidemiology, predisposing factors, and anatomy are explored in an attempt to identify those patients at risk for developing neuropathic pain. Nonsurgical and surgical therapies also are discussed. Chemical agents, including Eugenol, are referenced, as well.
2002 - Burning Mouth Syndrome Possible Causes & Management
MIRIAM GRUSHKA, M.SC., D.D.S., PH.D., et al
Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue or other oral sites, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness, and taste alterations. Burning mouth complaints are reported more often in women, especially after menopause. Typically, patients awaken without pain but note increasing symptoms through the day and into the evening...